Fifty-five million years ago the North Pole was an ice-free zone with tropical temperatures, according to research.
... in 2004, the Arctic Coring Expedition (Acex) used ice-breaking ships and a floating drilling rig to remove 400m-long cylinders of sediment from the bottom of the ocean floor.Link
The cores were taken from the 1,500km-long (930 miles) Lomonosov Ridge, which stretches between Siberia and Greenland.
The core holds layer upon layer of compressed fossils and minerals, which when studied can tell the story of millions of years of Arctic history.
The bottom end of the cylinder helped scientists to uncover what had happened to the Arctic during a dramatic global event known as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, which occurred about 55 million years ago.
Add this to the flora and fauna found in the Russian tundra, and you've got the beginnings of a really good argument for either the Greenhouse Effect or, if you're a bit more extremist, the Deluge
, one name for a theory of General Extinction that uses the world's centrifugal force on tectonic slippage to explain the vanishing of dinosaurs.